The Runtime service is not available – ColdFusion 2018

A few days ago I got an error with my ColdFusion 2018 server which I had not seen in many years.

coldfusion.server.ServiceFactory$ServiceNotAvailableException: The Runtime service is not available.
	at coldfusion.server.ServiceFactory.getRuntimeService(
	at coldfusion.graph.InteractiveGraphingServiceImpl.load(
	at coldfusion.graph.InteractiveGraphingServiceImpl.start(
	at coldfusion.server.CFService.setupGraphing(
	at coldfusion.server.CFService.start(
	at coldfusion.server.j2ee.CFStartUpServlet.startCFService(
	at coldfusion.server.j2ee.CFStartUpServlet.init(
	at javax.servlet.GenericServlet.init(
	at coldfusion.bootstrap.ClassloaderHelper.initServletClass(
	at coldfusion.bootstrap.BootstrapServlet.init(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapper.initServlet(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapper.loadServlet(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapper.load(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.loadOnStartup(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase$
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase$
	at java.base/
	at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.InlineExecutorService.execute(
	at java.base/java.util.concurrent.AbstractExecutorService.submit(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase$
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase$
	at java.base/
	at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.InlineExecutorService.execute(
	at java.base/java.util.concurrent.AbstractExecutorService.submit(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.startInternal(
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(
	at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
	at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(
	at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(
	at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(
	at com.adobe.coldfusion.bootstrap.Bootstrap.init(
	at com.adobe.coldfusion.bootstrap.Bootstrap.main(

I had seen this error when running ColdFusion 9 many years ago but not for some time. I could not figure out what I had broken.

After some googling it seemed to be that I could have done something when I had installed ColdFusion 2018 Update 4. I could only find old articles on the web like but nothing specific, so I tried the following

cd /opt/coldfusion2018/cfusion/hf-updates/
../../jre/bin/java -jar hotfix-004-314546.jar

After following the updater I checked the update.log which lives in the logs directory. There didn’t seem to be any issues with the update so I tried to start the CF servers again.

It didn’t work. I was presented with lots the exceptions like above and the server didn’t function. I was unable to access the CF admin UI but the logs didn’t tell me what could be wrong. I was very close to reinstalling CF 2018.

After some investigation and lots of frustration I remembered what I had been investigating when I last ran my CF 2018 server.

It was the Redis session storage with CF 2018. Specifically related to FRS-465. I had configured the session manager as shown below :

I no longer had the local redis server running (and had uninstalled it), but this was not just affecting sessions, it was completely breaking the CF admin UI preventing me from disabling the redis session storage.

After some help I found that I could remove the redis session manager by editing the libs/neo-runtime.xml file.

I change the var from

<var name='sessionStorage'><string>redis</string></var>


<var name='sessionStorage'><string>memory</string></var>

Now the ColdFusion 2018 server starts 🙂

A must have tool for monitoring CF apps

APM 5 star review

Latest review on G2

What do you like best?

The most helpful feature of FusionReactor is the fact that you can introspect all the requests running in production. You can easily see how much time it takes to run a specific process, identify its pain points and optimise them. What is highly appreciated is also the profiling functionality! You can even profile your app and dig into very low level optimisations which otherwise would be not easily pinpointed!

What do you dislike?

What probably needs more rework is the documentation when you are exporting the java cache files from the FR JVM. I spent quite some time looking into what each value ment, which could have been better documented.

Recommendations to others considering the product:

Since there is a lack of actual debugging tools for ColdFusion, I consider FusionReactor to be the only tool that actually gives you an insight within your application!

What problems are you solving with the product? What benefits have you realized?

Real time monitoring of processes is a huge benefit. Optimising slow processes is a huge plus.

See full review

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Finding (and Fixing) Your Slow ColdFusion Pages with FusionReactor

Finding (and Fixing) Your Slow ColdFusion Pages with FusionReactor

In my last article I described how I wanted to help introduce FusionReactor to ColdFusion developers with a special focus on helping solve practical problems and navigating terminology that may not be terribly familiar with if you haven’t used Java before. In that first article I focused on using the FusionReactor portal to find and diagnose pages that were throwing errors. In this follow up I’m going to highlight another great use of FusionReactor – finding slow pages.

Slow pages can be difficult to find. A page that runs fast on your local server could run much slower in production. A page with a complex set of inputs, like an advanced search field with numerous filters, can only run slow when a particular unique set of choices are made. Sometimes your code can be absolutely perfect, but an external factor is the culprit. Perhaps you’re integrating with a database that you have no control over, or maybe you’re using a third party API that has performance issues of its own.

In this article I’m going to highlight multiple examples of slow pages and how FusionReactor can help you find, and hopefully fix, each of them! Ready?

Finding Your Slow Requests

Before we begin writing some horribly slow code (I’m a pro at this!), let’s look at where FusionReactor displays these requests. In your left hand menu, under Requests, select Slow Requests:

Finding (and Fixing) Your Slow ColdFusion Pages

You’ll notice the display is split between currently running slow requests and requests that have already finished but were considered slow. Which begs the question – what’s “slow”?

Under Requests, go to Settings, and then select WebRequest History. Here you will find multiple settings you can configure including what the threshold is for something being considered slow. In my FusionReactor 8 instance this was set to 8 seconds.

To me this is a bit high and I’d consider switching it to a lower number. Performance is an incredibly important topic for web sites and while most of the discussion concerns what happens on the client side (rendering of JavaScript, styles, and so forth), the browser can’t even render anything until you actually return the HTML. While there’s a lot of resources out there on how fast a page should load, the general consensus should be two seconds. If your ColdFusion page is taking more than that to return a result to the browser, than you have already failed. (Because remember, the browser still has to work with your result to render it!)

And just to be re-iterate, this is important even if your ColdFusion page isn’t returning markup. If you are using ColdFusion to power a client-side application with JSON data, then you still need to ensure you’re returning a speedy response.

So yes, this is very, very important stuff. I’d go ahead and change that number from 8 down to 1 or 2. See what works best for you.

Another view of your slow requests is the Longest Requests view, also found under the Requests menu:

This is a sorted view of requests with the slowest being displayed first. This is not filtered by the Slow Request threshold but covers everything. Also note it includes non-ColdFusion files as well!

Bring the Slow

Let’s start off by demonstrating two slow pages. One is always going to be slow and one uses an external resource that will also always slow. Here’s the first one:

<h1>Slow Testing</h1>

Go to sleep...<br/>
<cfset sleep(30000)>
And done.

It simply uses the sleep function to pause the execution for 30 seconds. If you’ve never seen cfflush before, it tells the ColdFusion server to send out existing output to the browser. As a user, you would see the initial HTML, the browser continue to load, and then the rest of the results.

This will definitely cause a slow request to be logged. Unfortunately, unlike the error conditions we saw in the previous article, it’s a bit more difficult to diagnose. Let’s see why. First, here’s the details page for this particular request.

There’s a few things to note here. First, the slow time is nice, bold, and red. You can’t miss that and that’s a good thing. Now make note of JDBC. Don’t know what that means? JDBC is the acronym for Java Database Connectivity. Basically this is how ColdFusion speaks to databases. I started ColdFusion development way back in 96 or so, before ColdFusion ran on Java, but even back then the biggest culprit for slow requests was issues at the database layer. We aren’t doing any database requests on this page but nine times out of ten you want to turn your focus here. Every single one of those metrics is crucial and can be a flag for an underlying issue.

As a real example of this, I was working with a client and discovered they had about 1000+ database queries being run in a request. How did this happen? They had queries in an Application.cfm file, queries in a header file, queries in a file loaded by a header file, and so on and so on. 90% of these queries were the exact same query run multiple times. They weren’t stupid – they just didn’t realize everything going on in one particular request. This can happen as a web application grows larger and more complex, and is yet another reason to consider a tool like FusionReactor!

Alright, but this template isn’t slow because of a query. What do you do next? Click on the Profiler tab next. (And note, back in the main list of slow requests, every slow request has a direct link to this particular view.)

So in this case, you can’t really get to a particular line of your template or ColdFusion method. But even if you’ve never used Java before, seeing 100% correlated to java.lang.Thread.sleep should give you a clue as to which particular tag was the issue.

Let’s consider another example, this time the ColdFusion template is using a third party API built on a serverless platform:

<h1>Slow Testing 2</h1>

Call API...<br/>

<cfhttp url="">
<cfdump var="#cfhttp#">

In this case, the serverless function I’m hitting is using setTimeout to delay the response for 3001 milliseconds. This page is going to be slow, but it’s something out of ColdFusion’s hands. (But to be clear, this is still something you could address. Can you cache the result? Can you fire it via a scheduled task and store the result locally? You’ve got options!) So how is this reported in the profile?

In this example, you can see two things that stand out – first and then Dump.cfc. The later clearly refers to the cfdump tag which typically wouldn’t be run in production. But should definitely be enough of a clue to tell you where the issue is. Of course, you may run into an issue if you have multiple HTTP calls in your ColdFusion page. In that case you’ll need to do further testing to see if you can determine the culprit. The important thing to note though is how FusionReactor got you nearly 100% of the way there!

What Next?

In this article I simply introduced the Slow Request views in FusionReactor and used it to find a few problem scripts that should be fixed. In my next article I’m going to turn my attention to database specific issues and show you how FusionReactor helps there. As always, leave me a comment below if you have any questions!